Genomics of gynaecological carcinosarcomas and future treatment options
Barker, HE; Scott, CL
Seminars in Cancer Biology
Journal Article in press
Gynaecological carcinosarcomas are the most lethal gynaecological malignancies that are often highly resistant to standard chemotherapy. They are composed of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components and are associated with high rates of metastatic disease. Due to their rarity, molecular studies have been carried out on relatively few tumours, revealing a broad spectrum of heterogeneity. In this review, we have collated the gene mutations, gene expression, epigenetic regulation and protein expression reported by a number of studies on gynaecological carcinosarcomas. Based on these results, we describe potential therapeutics that may demonstrate efficacy and present any pre-clinical studies that have been carried out. We also describe the pre-clinical models currently available for future research to assess the potential of molecularly matched therapies. Interestingly, over-expression of many biomarkers in carcinosarcoma tumours often doesn't correlate with a worse prognosis. Therefore, we propose that profiling the mutational landscape, gene expression, and gene amplification/deletion may better indicate potential treatment strategies and predict response, thus improving outcomes for women with this rare, aggressive disease.