Ptpn6 is a cytoplasmic phosphatase that functions to prevent autoimmune and interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor-dependent, caspase-1-independent inflammatory disease. Conditional deletion of Ptpn6 in neutrophils (Ptpn6(PMN)) is sufficient to initiate IL-1 receptor-dependent cutaneous inflammatory disease, but the source of IL-1 and the mechanisms behind IL-1 release remain unclear. Here, we investigate the mechanisms controlling IL-1alpha/beta release from neutrophils by inhibiting caspase-8-dependent apoptosis and Ripk1-Ripk3-Mlkl-regulated necroptosis. Loss of Ripk1 accelerated disease onset, whereas combined deletion of caspase-8 and either Ripk3 or Mlkl strongly protected Ptpn6(PMN) mice. Ptpn6(PMN) neutrophils displayed increased p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent Ripk1-independent IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor production, and were prone to cell death. Together, these data emphasize dual functions for Ptpn6 in the negative regulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation to control tumor necrosis factor and IL-1alpha/beta expression, and in maintaining Ripk1 function to prevent caspase-8- and Ripk3-Mlkl-dependent cell death and concomitant IL-1alpha/beta release.
Structural Biology; Inflammation; Blood Cells and Blood Cancer