Background: DC are activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and this is pivotal for the induction of adaptive immune responses. Thereafter, the clearance of activated DC is crucial to prevent immune pathology. While PAMPs are of major interest for vaccine science due to their adjuvant potential, it is unclear whether and how PAMPs may affect DC viability. We aimed to elucidate the possible apoptotic mechanisms that control activated DC lifespan in response to PAMPs, particularly in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings: We report that polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (PolyIC, synthetic analogue of dsRNA) induces dramatic apoptosis of mouse splenic conventional DC (cDC) in vivo, predominantly affecting the CD8 alpha subset, as shown by flow cytometry-based analysis of splenic DC subsets. Importantly, while Bim deficiency conferred only minor protection, cDC depletion was prevented in mice lacking Bim plus one of three other BH3-only proteins, either Puma, Noxa or Bid. Furthermore, we show that Type I Interferon (IFN) is necessary and sufficient for DC death both in vitro and in vivo, and that TLR3 and MAVS co-operate in IFN beta production in vivo to induce DC death in response to PolyIC. Conclusions/Significance: These results demonstrate for the first time in vivo that apoptosis restricts DC lifespan following activation by PolyIC, particularly affecting the CD8a cDC subset. Such DC apoptosis is mediated by the overlapping action of pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins, including but not solely involving Bim, and is driven by Type I IFN. While Type I IFNs are important anti-viral factors, CD8 alpha cDC are major cross-presenting cells and critical inducers of CTL. We discuss such paradoxical finding on DC death with PolyIC/Type I IFN. These results could contribute to understand immunosuppression associated with chronic infection, and to the optimization of DC-based therapies and the clinical use of PAMPs and Type I IFNs.