Dimeric but not monomeric alpha-lactalbumin potentiates apoptosis by up regulation of ATF3 and reduction of histone deacetylase activity in primary and immortalised cells
Journal Title
Cell Signal
Publication Type
Journal Article
alpha-lactalbumin is a protein of dual function found in milk of most mammals. alpha-lactalbumin binds beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase to form the regulatory subunit for lactose synthesis and has also been shown to cause cell death. This study shows, for the first time, that alpha-lactalbumin isolated in a rare 28kDa dimeric form induces cell death, while 14kDa monomeric alpha-lactalbumin is inactive. In contrast to the casein derived and chemically induced alpha-lactalbumin variants, MAL and HAMLET/BAMLET, the effects of 28kDa alpha-lactalbumin are calcium independent and, unlike MAL and HAMLET, 28kDa alpha-lactalbumin dimer causes cell death of primary mammary cells and a variety of immortalised cell lines, which are committed to cell death pathways within 1-4h of exposure. Microarray analysis confirmed that cell death was the result of an apoptotic response. Functional assays determined that the mechanism by which 28kDa alpha-lactalbumin kills cells involved inhibition of histone deacetylase activity mediated by NF-kB. We also show that 28kDa alpha-lactalbumin occurs naturally in the milk of cows, goats and sheep, is low in concentration during mid-lactation, but accumulates during milk stasis, consistent with a role in involution.
WEHI Research Division(s)
PubMed ID
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Creation Date: 2017-04-12 10:42:22
Last Modified: 2017-04-12 11:34:49
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