Relating SMCHD1 structure to its function in epigenetic silencing
Details
Publication Year 2020-08-11, Volume 48, Issue #4, Page 1751-1763
Journal Title
Biochemical Society Transactions
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
The structural maintenance of chromosomes hinge domain containing protein 1 (SMCHD1) is a large multidomain protein involved in epigenetic gene silencing. Variations in the SMCHD1 gene are associated with two debilitating human disorders, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and Bosma arhinia microphthalmia syndrome (BAMS). Failure of SMCHD1 to silence the D4Z4 macro-repeat array causes FSHD, yet the consequences on gene silencing of SMCHD1 variations associated with BAMS are currently unknown. Despite the interest due to these roles, our understanding of the SMCHD1 protein is in its infancy. Most knowledge of SMCHD1 function is based on its similarity to the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins, such as cohesin and condensin. SMC proteins and SMCHD1 share similar domain organisation and affect chromatin conformation. However, there are important differences between the domain architectures of SMC proteins and SMCHD1, which distinguish SMCHD1 as a non-canonical member of the family. In the last year, the crystal structures of the two key domains crucial to SMCHD1 function, the ATPase and hinge domains, have emerged. These structures reveal new insights into how SMCHD1 may bind and regulate chromatin structure, and address how amino acid variations in SMCHD1 may contribute to BAMS and FSHD. Here, we contrast SMCHD1 with canonical SMC proteins, and relate the ATPase and hinge domain structures to their roles in SMCHD1-mediated epigenetic silencing and disease.
Publisher
Portland Press
WEHI Research Division(s)
Inflammation; Epigenetics And Development; Structural Biology
PubMed ID
32779700
Open Access at Publisher's Site
https://doi.org/10.1042/BST20200242
Rights Notice
Refer to copyright notice on published article.


Creation Date: 2020-09-07 02:56:52
Last Modified: 2020-09-07 03:21:29
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