The regulation of necroptosis by post-translational modifications
- Journal Title
- Cell Death and Differentiation
- Publication Type
- epub ahead of print
- Necroptosis is a caspase-independent, lytic form of programmed cell death whose errant activation has been widely implicated in many pathologies. The pathway relies on the assembly of the apical protein kinases, RIPK1 and RIPK3, into a high molecular weight cytoplasmic complex, termed the necrosome, downstream of death receptor or pathogen detector ligation. The necrosome serves as a platform for RIPK3-mediated phosphorylation of the terminal effector, the MLKL pseudokinase, which induces its oligomerization, translocation to, and perturbation of, the plasma membrane to cause cell death. Over the past 10 years, knowledge of the post-translational modifications that govern RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL conformation, activity, interactions, stability and localization has rapidly expanded. Here, we review current knowledge of the functions of phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, GlcNAcylation, proteolytic cleavage, and disulfide bonding in regulating necroptotic signaling. Post-translational modifications serve a broad array of functions in modulating RIPK1 engagement in, or exclusion from, cell death signaling, whereas the bulk of identified RIPK3 and MLKL modifications promote their necroptotic functions. An enhanced understanding of the modifying enzymes that tune RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL necroptotic functions will prove valuable in efforts to therapeutically modulate necroptosis.
- WEHI Research Division(s)
- Inflammation; Advanced Technology And Biology; Structural Biology
- PubMed ID
- Publisher's Version
- Rights Notice
- Refer to copyright notice on published article.
Creation Date: 2021-03-09 08:05:30Last Modified: 2021-03-09 08:09:39