From a large-scale genomic analysis of insertion sequences to insights into their regulatory roles in prokaryotes
Tempel, S; Bedo, J; Talla, E;
Publication Year 2022-06-20,Volume 23,Issue #1,Page 451
Journal Title
BMC Genomics
BACKGROUND: Insertion sequences (ISs) are mobile repeat sequences and most of them can copy themselves to new host genome locations, leading to genome plasticity and gene regulation in prokaryotes. In this study, we present functional and evolutionary relationships between IS and neighboring genes in a large-scale comparative genomic analysis. RESULTS: IS families were located in all prokaryotic phyla, with preferential occurrence of IS3, IS4, IS481, and IS5 families in Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes as well as in eukaryote host-associated organisms and autotrophic opportunistic pathogens. We defined the concept of the IS-Gene couple (IG), which allowed to highlight the functional and regulatory impacts of an IS on the closest gene. Genes involved in transcriptional regulation and transport activities were found overrepresented in IG. In particular, major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters, ATP-binding proteins and transposases raised as favorite neighboring gene functions of IS hotspots. Then, evolutionary conserved IS-Gene sets across taxonomic lineages enabled the classification of IS-gene couples into phylum, class-to-genus, and species syntenic IS-Gene couples. The IS5, IS21, IS4, IS607, IS91, ISL3 and IS200 families displayed two to four times more ISs in the phylum and/or class-to-genus syntenic IGs compared to other IS families. This indicates that those families were probably inserted earlier than others and then subjected to horizontal transfer, transposition and deletion events over time. In phylum syntenic IG category, Betaproteobacteria, Crenarchaeota, Calditrichae, Planctomycetes, Acidithiobacillia and Cyanobacteria phyla act as IS reservoirs for other phyla, and neighboring gene functions are mostly related to transcriptional regulators. Comparison of IS occurrences with predicted regulatory motifs led to ~ 26.5% of motif-containing ISs with 2 motifs per IS in average. These results, concomitantly with short IS-Gene distances, suggest that those ISs would interfere with the expression of neighboring genes and thus form strong candidates for an adaptive pairing. CONCLUSIONS: All together, our large-scale study provide new insights into the IS genetic context and strongly suggest their regulatory roles.
Insertion sequence; IS regulatory role; IS neighboring genes
WEHI Research Division(s)
PubMed ID
Open Access at Publisher's Site
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Creation Date: 2022-06-24 09:51:58
Last Modified: 2022-06-24 10:56:09
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